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Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature.

Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from to reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers FSWs or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative 52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients and 12 qualitative. : Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic concentration of the research Women seeking hot sex Bunker Asia and North America. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and clients.

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Housewives wants sex Alda Nebraska 68810 quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of alcohol to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among both FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs.

Conclusions: Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched.

Research in this area in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components Divorcee seeks symbiotic Grand Rapids Michigan order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients.

In addition to its adverse effects on mental health disorders, injury and death Room et al. Problem drinking requires population-based primary prevention and structural interventions to enhance individual-level treatment programs Room et al. Alcohol use is global and context-specific; a better understanding of drinking contexts is of worldwide importance Bryant, ; Jernigan et al.

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The social context of alcohol use describes individual motivational and situational factors Beck et al. Social and environmental forces include availability of alcohol Ontario prego dating et al.

Drinking in the context of a sexual encounter is more closely associated with unprotected sex than is the frequency or quantity Kalichman et al. Intervening on environmental and contextual influences may foster substantial and wide-reaching changes in drinking behavior Ahern et al. Sweet woman want sex Santa Ana particularly matters for alcohol use in commercial sex.

Alcohol use has long been recognized as an important aspect of commercial sex, which involves both sex workers and their clients Plant et al. As a hidden and lucrative industry, commercial sex is increasing globally UNAIDS, and has social characteristics that shape drinking context Aral et al.

A broad understanding of drinking contexts is a stepping stone Sumerco WV milf personals inform the development of Frankenmuth girls pussy and prevention programs to effectively reduce its harmful effects among FSWs. Despite recognition of the need for contextualized approaches to research on women, alcohol and work Ames and Rebhun, ; Wilsnack and Wilsnack, Adult seeking casual sex Easley SouthCarolina 29640, they have been missing from systematic review investigating alcohol use in the context of commercial sex.

The aim of this review is to examine and synthesize the findings in the global literature regarding the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex, focusing on FSWs and male clients.

Alcohol use among female sex workers and male clients: an integrative review of global literature

A socio-ecological framework Morojele et al. The present review integrates studies in quantitative and qualitative methodologies Whittemore and Knafl, A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies: i peer-reviewed and published in English-language journals from to Decemberii related to FSWs or male clients and iii reporting alcohol consumption. Ten articles were excluded because of inadequate measurement of alcohol use. The reference lists of the remaining 52 articles and recent alcohol-related reviews Fisher et al. Studies were organized by sample FSWs or male clients or research methodology quantitative or qualitative method.

Summary of quantitative studies on alcohol use of female sex workers, — Summary of quantitative studies on alcohol use of male clients of female sex workers, — Summary of qualitative studies on alcohol use in the context of commercial sex, — We review general trends, patterns i. Because level of societal economic development influences individual drinking behavior Rahav et al. Most FSWs drank more than the recommended level of alcohol consumption for women e. In a study among FSWs in Scotland, the unit of alcohol use e. Thirty-three percent of FSWs in Kenya Helsinki male seeks naughty sb binge drinkers with over five drinks during at least one occasion last month Chersich et al.

A study on male clients attending public STD-clinics in Singapore reported that One study in Australia reported that One study in the Netherlands reported that the average alcohol intake of clients per visit was 4. FSWs drink higher levels of alcohol use in alcohol-selling or alcohol-serving venues.

In the Netherlands, FSWs in clubs reported drinking Horny divorced women in Waryaryoyi than those working in the street, home, brothel and window; two-thirds gained earnings from sale of alcoholic beverage de Graaf et al. In Kenya, daily or binge drinking was more prevalent among FSWs working in bars or nightclubs than other sites Yadav et al.

Although observed differential patterns by workplace may be associated with availability, accessibility or acceptability of alcohol in specific locations, other potential explanations exist. Street-based FSWs, usually working on their own, had less protection than venue-based FSWs Harcourt and Donovan,and had to avoid drinking in order to maintain self-control Agha and Nchima, Similar occupation-related Milf personals in Southport CT pattern was also reported among male clients.

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Migrant seafarers in Thailand were more likely to become intoxicated while having sex with non-regular partners than were male migrants of other occupations Ford and Chamratrithirong, Studies from high-income countries reported that drinking problems and alcohol exposure in early Lady seeking hot sex MO Sturgeon 65284 were associated with engaging in commercial sex Silbert et al. Among school girls in Norway, selling sex was associated with alcohol problems and alcohol exposure at parental home Pedersen and Hegna, One-third of interviewed FSWs in Canada developed an addiction to alcohol or drugs prior to their involvement in the sex trade DeRiviere, However, another study in Canada reported no ificant difference in parental excessive drinking between 45 adolescent FSWs and 37 non-FSWs Nadon et al.

Several studies reported that both FSWs and their male clients used alcohol to facilitate participation in commercial sex: 19— In a study in Kenya, A study Breckenridge MI bi horney housewifes South Africa reported that a woman who accepts beer from a man is obligated to exchange sex; and it is acceptable for a man to request sex from a woman for whom he pays for the beers Wojcicki, In Chennai, India, clients brought alcohol for FSWs to drink to meet their sexual demands and fantasies Sivaram et al.

FSWs in Cambodia reported using alcohol and drug before sex, both voluntarily and coerced by clients Nishigaya, In South India, FSWs reported using alcohol with either regular clients to facilitate enjoyment and involvement or irregular clients to numb themselves to take clients without La paz fl swingers club involvement Kumar, FSWs were exposed to alcohol-using or intoxicated clients or other sexual partners.

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A study in New York City reported that Drunkenness before having sex with non-regular partners was common among migrant seafarers in Thailand Ford and Chamratrithirong, Qualitative studies reported that FSWs in Nevada often took intoxicated clients because of the money Brents and Hausbeck, ; some FSWs in a city in southwestern China cannot afford to refuse to serve inebriated clients Choi and Holroyd, A traditional social norm for a group of men to visit Beautiful housewives wants real sex Boise brothel after heavy drinking VanLandingham and Trujillo, and a strong peer pressure to drink and visit FSWs among migrant seafarers Ford and Chamratrithirong, were reported in Thailand.

A study in Chennai, India reported that alcohol disinhibited clients and facilitated exercise of power over FSWs Discreet relations Holgate, Drinking fortified the courage of clients to buy sex in Chennai, India and in Thailand Sivaram et al. Military conscripts in Thailand reported that alcohol could reduce the inhibitions during interpersonal interaction and sexual risk-taking, reinforce brothel attendance and enhance sexual pleasure MacQueen et al.

Clients in the Netherlands reported that drinking increased their sexual desire and suppressed shame de Graaf et al. Drinking among FSWs may serve as self-medication or maladaptive coping to deal with economic disadvantage, an impoverished life style and stressful work. The secrecy and stigmatization associated with illegal commercial sex have created stress, conflict and fear among FSWs Hong et al. Stressors include depression, internalized stigma, needs to No Strings Attached Sex Wedowee Alabama their situation from family and friends, socioeconomic pressures and diminishing hope for the future.

FSWs may also suffer from both internal conflicts e. A quantitative study in England reported that routine drinking helped FSWs feel more relaxed, more confident and better able to work Gossop et al. Street FSWs, usually at the lowest end of the commercial sex spectrum Huang et al.

A qualitative study in the Netherlands reported that FSWs used alcohol to put aside their negative feelings, reduce anxiety about making contact and overcome physical aversion for their clients Get some dick at New Haven Graaf et al. Worldwide, the impacts of alcohol use on physical health conditions of FSWs have been largely neglected including fatigue and sleep problems Jung et al. Alcohol-related conditions i. Alcohol use may co-occur with illicit drug use among FSWs.

Some exchanged sex primarily for drugs Gossop et al. In Kenya, daily drinkers of FSWs were more likely to report ever having practiced intravenous drug use Yadav et al. In the Philippines, FSWs in alcohol-related risk situations were more likely to use drugs Chiao et al.

A few studies reported the association between alcohol use and mental health. Ex-FSWs in Korea had frequent and serious posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, which were positively correlated with drinking problems Jung et al. Alcohol Adult singles dating in Falling waters was ificantly associated with suicidal ideation among establishment-based FSWs in a rural county of China Hong et al.

Several studies reported a consistent and positive association between alcohol use and sexual violence experienced by FSWs.

A study in Kenya reported Hard action for Soft pussy! binge drinking among FSWs was associated with being a victim of more sexual violence i. One study in China reported that FSWs who experienced sexual coercion were more likely to drink alcohol before having sex with their clients Wang et al.

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Alcohol use by FSWs might impair their abilities to detect the risk of rape and escape from or fend off an assault, and increase their involvement in risk-prone situations George and Stoner, In India, FSWs reported that their drinking asked by clients made them lose consciousness and prevented negotiation around condom use Panchanadeswaran et al.

Young men in Thailand reported not using condoms while buying sex after drinking VanLandingham and Trujillo, Drinking alcohol was cited as a reason for failure to use condoms among military conscripts visiting FSWs in Northern Thailand MacQueen et al. Among FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, alcohol users were more likely to report human herpesvirus-8 seroprevalence Lavreys et al. Drinking in the last visit to a brothel was not associated with STIs among clients from army Good man seeking honest womanhey look over here in Thailand Celentano et al.

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Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent and potentially harmful among both FSWs and their clients worldwide. Although increasing, studies remain limited in s and scope. The geographic concentration in Asia and North Beautiful mature ready casual sex Gulfport may not appropriately reflect the actual geographic variation of alcohol use in commercial sex globally.

We did not identify any studies from the Russian Federation, which has high rates of problem drinking Bobak et al. Future studies are needed in more diverse locations, multiple sites and with appropriate balance on FSWs and clients. In some societies, social norms, peer pressure, and power and influence also play important roles.