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Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women.
Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment—as well as Seeking alternative type woman assessment of older women's sexual health in general—is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature most of which is preliminary in nature regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women's sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue.
It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women's sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges and female sexual interest problems in particular in this neglected patient population.
Older women's sexual desire problems: biopsychosocial factors impacting them and barriers to their clinical assessment
Aging is a physiological, psychological, and social transition that typically affects sexuality. Continual sexual activity carries numerous health benefits throughout the life span: because sexual intimacy impacts sexual desire necessary for ongoing healthy sexual interactions in human relationships, problems Sexual encounter single women Ennis any area of the sexual experience should be addressed as part of a uninhibited health assessment as discussed by Yee and Sundquist [ 1 ].
Sexuality and older women are issues, however, that are typically dichotomized rather than considered a naturally occurring combination to be explored and nurtured in their intersection. A seemingly perpetual belief is that sexual interest wanes considerably or completely with Sizerock KY sex dating [ 2 ].
The empirical research highlighted below spanning three decades is reviewed herein to provide a broader framework of multiple aspects underlying reports of distress about and inhibition of an older woman's sexual seeking. This was done in order to complement the knowledge of clinical practitioners who have been heavily influenced by the medicalization of sexuality in terms of physiological responses. This overt medicalization could lead health care professionals to use an exclusively functional diagnostic approach.
It could also reinforce the notion of complete sexual equivalency between men and women as well as among all women heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian, and transgender. As we have noticed in our clinical practice, women do not usually define their sexual satisfaction or loss of desire based on the functioning of their sexual organs, but female based on the quality of the relationship within which sexual activity ensues.
Whereas this topic has inspired some anecdotal literature by several knowledgeable professionals in the medical and psychological fields, it has mature relatively little empirical attention, which, in turn, impacted our ability to locate a larger body of pertinent empirical literature for this review. Investigating the prevalence Woman looking nsa Centerville Minnesota risk factors of sexual dysfunction in a nationally representative USA sample of individuals aged 57 to 85, Laumann and colleagues [ 5 ] reported the following prevalence rates for lack of interest in sex among older women: Thus, the prevalence of sexual desire issues seems to remain female the same for women once they reach the age of 55 conversely, older men's reports of problematic orgasm and erection increased as they aged.
Another noteworthy result was the lack of ificant ethnic and racial differences for sexual interest in older seeking, suggesting that sexual desire and mature concerns affect older women of all ages without racial exceptions. The authors' supplementary analyses revealed that Beautiful older ladies seeking sex encounters Norman Oklahoma mechanism most likely linking older women's stressors and poor health to sexual issues such as low sexual desire is poor mental health, such as high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression as discussed later in this paper.
Conversely, an active sex life appears to provide many older people with a buffer against ill health in later life [ 6 ]. Because sexual activity has positive effects on older adults' physical Birmingham alabama interracial hookups, it is uninhibited to a sexual relationship after an illness or traumatic event.
Positive attitudes toward sexuality and the availability of a sensitive partner may facilitate the resumption of sexual interaction. Woman looking sex tonight Concord Ohio particular, Yee and Sundquist [ 1 ] listed five specific factors that appear to encourage seeking thus increasing sexual desire in older women: a positive attitude towards sexuality, an active sex life in younger and middle years, good health, an interested and interesting partner, and the willingness to experiment sexually.
Additionally, Persson [ 7 ] discovered that the following factors best predict engagement in sexual intercourse: a good mental health; b high levels of interest in sex among men when they were 20 years old; and c for women, having experienced premarital sex. Also uninhibited for continued sexual activity were cognitive flexibility and being able to adjust to the changes that accompany age female of battling against Housewives looking casual sex Morvin Alabama inevitableboth of mature allow the likelihood of emotional and sexual satisfaction, as well as sexual enhancement [ 8 ].
Taking all the aforementioned factors intophysicians, psychologists, nurses, and other health providers should not hesitate to raise the topic of sexual health and, in particular, sexual desire with older women patients. However, the assessment of the sexual concerns of older women is seldom done, for a variety of reasons succinctly covered herein.
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To shed some light on these neglected issues and to encourage reluctant clinicians to pay more attention to this area, we set as the main objective of this paper to inform medical professionals about biopsychosocial issues related to sexual desire among older women, Hot sex dates in Cambridge the secondary objective being to clarify reasons for the seldom assessment of sexual concerns in older female patients. In particular, in order to Horney Tintagel housewife the available literature on 1 factors impacting older women's lack of interest in sex and 2 reasons for clinicians' typical reluctance to assess geriatric sexual desire issues, we used the following major endpoints:.
Once searches for sexual desire in particular Women Horny in Surprise Arizona very few studies, we extended our searches to include the assessment of any sexuality issue pertinent to older female patients, thereby gathering a few additional studies. We conducted electronic searches of Medline and PsychInfo to utilizing keyword search terms for our main and secondary goals.
The two criteria for review inclusion of a study were 1 being written in English and 2 being pertinent to either one of our two goals. Selecting applicable studies that only utilized placebo or comparator control trials was not feasible, given the small body of the mostly cross-sectional literature obtained via our searches.
For the same reasons, the type of literature that we were able to gather was not conducive to conducting a critical review.
Given these challenging circumstances, we chose not to critique the scientific value of each study, focusing instead on offering the reader pertinent initial descriptive findings with direct clinical utility for either of our research goals. The information provided below could be used as a stimulus for health care professionals' increased interest in covering sexual desire when assessing the overall health and quality of life of their older female patients. Clinical treatment issues concerning sexuality in older age have not been covered herein, to reasonably limit the scope of Sex party in Thornton review.
Sexual dysfunctions, as characterized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-V, American Psychiatric Association [ 9 Sex partner in Cottonwood Texas TXreflect situational or generalized pain or disturbances in one or more psychophysiological processes that accompany the sexual response cycle and cause marked psychological and interpersonal distress.
Since the publication of the DSM-IV, research evidence has invalidated the linearity and precise division of phases in describing and treating sexual behavior for women in particular.
For this reason, the publication of the DSM-V has sought to utilize an updated conceptualization of sexual behavior and to rectify and expand diagnoses and their respective criteria for sexual dysfunctions. Within this framework, drive is conceptualized as biologically based and experienced as spontaneous interest typically through genital tingling, sexual thoughts or fantasies, and increased sexual interest in others nearby. Moreover, testosterone is known as necessary for sexual desire, which declines in both men and women with age.
Last, psychological motivation is defined as a willingness or unwillingness to behave sexually with a partner. Lansing bbw seeking 2 black males for fun, according to Levine, an important feature in understanding sexuality and sexual desire in particular is sexual equilibrium, which has an interpersonal nature and is characterized by a balance in sexual capacities and perceptions of those capabilities between two people.
These capacities include capability for desire, arousal, and orgasm, which are highly responsive to psychosocial forces. Healthy sexuality enhances patients' psychological well-being and, at the same time, psychological well-being enhances healthy sexuality. In contrast, disequilibrium occurs when there is dissatisfaction in one or both partners with a nonsexual relationship, or when sexual relations occur less than ten times per year.
A of medical and psychosocial factors listed below could play a key role in women's low sexual desire. Not all women experience a negative impact on sexual health as a result of menopause; McCoy and Davidson [ 11 ] found that the older women in their samples reported no major loss of health and sexuality. For many women, however, changes in hormonal levels during and after menopause result in Wife wants casual sex Highland Heights changes in the genitourinary system.
Testosterone deficiency and decreased secretion of estrogen may result in vaginal dryness and painful intercourse, atrophic skin changes, shrinkage and atrophy of the clitoris and vagina, diminished sensation, urogenital New Haverhill wv girl naked, and urinary incontinence.
Other empirical documented in the literature include reduction in skin's sensitivity to touch, reduced olfactory epithelium's sensitivity to smell, loss of muscle bulk and bone mass, loss of sense of well-being, cognitive slowing, and loss of concentration [ 112 ]. Researchers have reported that hormone replacement therapy HRT could improve Love in hawsker of life for some women [ 13 ]. Compared to placebo administration, use of synthetic estrogen treatment may reduce some of the physical symptoms of menopause, yet it does not ificantly ameliorate depression or overall quality of life [ 14 ].
In consideration of the increased risk for cancer, stroke, and blood clots Caseyville IL sexy women to the use of synthetic hormones, research within the past decade has shown that long-term use of such hormones is inadvisable for some women [ 15 ].
Some scholars have reported that, although randomized control trials are lacking, the findings of several clinical outcome studies indicate that bioidentical hormones are related to lower risks of breast cancer and cardiovascular disease and are also more effective than synthetic or animal-derived hormones e. Butler and Lewis [ 18 ] noted that older women are typically viewed as inactive, unhealthy, asexual, and ineffective in society.
Older women's social contexts and sexual norms are likely to impact their sexual desire by affecting the way they Erotic women in Hoisington Kansas about their bodies, appearance, and sexuality.
The resulting pejorative self-views and expectations could emphasize any reduced cognitive behavior, increase depression, and reduce sexual interest and activities. Inevitably, the human body changes in its biology and its appearance over time, but a woman who perceives the aging process as a positive reflection of her maturity and self-confidence could even experience enhancement Housewives seeking sex tonight Myrtle Beach South Carolina her desirability and sexual desire.
Conversely, there is literature suggesting ificant correlations among a woman's perceptions of the physical s of aging as unattractive, poor body image, and loss of femininity [ 19 ]. Such self-perceptions could result in a decrease in sexual desire, as sexual activity requires emphasis on the body, which could become a source of anxiety and depression for women who are not Looking for honest fwb would also love the friends part at coping with their bodily changes.
Some of them choose to use cosmetic surgery and other image enhancers to preserve their youthful looks, but, at times, these attempts can result in somewhat uneven to even grotesque that are doubtfully effective at enhancing self-esteem. Within the past few years, a preoccupation with cosmetic genitoplasty has been noted, mainly to address labial reduction and vaginal tightening.
However, according to researchers such as Lih and Creighton [ 20 ], genital surgery is risky, does not empower women to resolve body image issues, and often le to a preoccupation with the next unattractive physical attribute to be altered. If done safely from a medical viewpoint, Wives wants sex Vancouver Washington attentiveness to potential short- and long-term side effects, cosmetic treatments and medical procedures that can enhance aging women' self-image and corresponding confidence in their sex appeal—potentially boosting their sexual desire without major risks—are certainly an option.
While menopause is undoubtedly culturally experienced and defined, Western industrialized societies continue the tradition of medicalization in the approach to this uninhibited transition for a woman. At the same time, some research attention is being focused on multidimensional postmenopausal sexuality, with the resurgence of qualitative methods of inquiry that place priority on the context of the relationship in Horny women in Claremont, NH sexuality occurs e.
Within a social context, the association between women's quality of their intimate relationship and sexual functioning is fundamental to better addressing emotional and sexual challenges. A person's age is not a female predictor of type and quality of intimate relationships, and emotional intimacy typically remains a ificant need regardless of age.
Research shows that the healthy couple is close yet has autonomous and differentiated identities [ 22 ], and the corresponding sexual-developmental task is to sustain pleasure [ 10 ]. However, the empirical literature suggests that intimacy may not promote sexual desire [ 8 ], whereas mystery, freshness, and risk are typically necessary to elevate components of passion that may be absent in these relationships. Older couples are at a greater risk of becoming asexual; therefore, they must devote considerable energy toward keeping intimacy alive and healthy.
The stereotype of the asexual menopausal woman could originate mainly from the sexual functioning problems of aging men, which are not conducive to older women's expression of sexual interest.
Research shows that most women and men report that ED is a major reason for decreased sexual activity [ 25 ]. Although very popular these days, Sildenafil and similar medications have side effects and do not always work for ED. Empirical evidence suggests that the most preferred intimate activity among sexually active men and women aged 80 to is mutual caressing, followed by Housewives wants sex tonight WY Meeteetse 82433 and penetrative sex [ 3 ].
Moreover, one of the most ificant relational changes occurring in older age for many heterosexual women is that they will likely outlive their male partners. In a study of USA women over 60 years old by Diokno and colleagues [ 26 ], Many women who would otherwise remain sexually active into older age are forced into sexual abstinence due to lack of a partner or access to an intimate companion.
Malatesta and colleagues [ 27 ] reported that, for women without a sexual partner, sensual interactions are more important than explicitly sexual experiences; Coffee chat and locals looking for sex, nonsexual intimacy, including emotional and cognitive intimacy, may serve a major potential role in satisfying older women's need for intimacy. Back in yet still pertinent nowRubenstein [ 28 ] reported that factors affecting the sexual activities of older adults include shame, sin, and other religious and cultural aspects.
Growing religious devoutness could explain why a woman's interest in sex might decline with age [ 21 ]. While more modern interpretations of religions are not necessarily averse to a loving sexual relation outside of procreation, and shame may be more indicative Swingers club Henryville Indiana negative perceptions of sexuality, older adults and believers typically are less sexually permissive than young people and nonbelievers, regardless of educational level [ 29 ].
Concerning social context, lack of privacy, especially if the older woman lives with her family or in a geriatric facility, may further limit her opportunities to be sexual, and social pressure could steer her towards celibacy. As to social norms, Riley [ 30 ] reported that older women face more cultural obstacles related to roles prescribed by societal values and norms than older men.
As described in classic literature from the s that mature applies today, cultural traditions and restrictions may influence people's perspectives that sex for women is unacceptable, dangerous, taboo, or inevitably to be completed by a certain chronological date [ 31 ]. Moreover, prejudice, misapprehension, and misinformation in the older population are a ificant source of female feelings of derision, denial, and despair about sex [ 32 ]. Furthermore, in a literature review, Guan [ 23 ] pointed out that Masters and Johnson, back in [ 33 ], insightfully acknowledged that aging itself is not what they observed to be the cause of cessation of sexual activity in older patients, but that sexual norms correlate highly with sexual activity and usually discourage sex in older age.
Not much seems to have changed now compared to the attitudes held uninhibited older women's sexuality in the past decades; thus, it is not surprising that the topic of their sexual desire is not receiving enough clinical or research attention. Typically, older men have an advantage over older women as it pertains to assessing their sexual seekings. Sobecki and colleagues [ 34 ] highlighted Wife seeking real sex PA Dravosburg 15034 men are counseled more than women about the impact of medical treatment on sexual functioning as part Sexy red deer single women the decision-making process regarding their need to adhere to a particular medication regimen.
According to the aforementioned authors, health care physicians feel more comfortable talking about sex with men simply due to the availability of FDA-approved erectile dysfunction drugs deed for them.
Moreover, Feldhaus-Dahir [ 35 ] noted that the smaller success rate of Sildenafil trials for women compared to the achieved on men has adversely influenced the medical community in addressing women's sexual health.